Antioxidant PA100 (similar to Wingstay 100 of Goodyear and ACCINOX
100 of ICI) is a mixture of diaryl-p-phenylenediamines, which can
be classified in p-phenylene antioxidant, is excellent antiozonant
to chloroprene rubber. It is the effective antioxidant used in the
tire industry and also widely used for rubber products.
PA100 can be used as an antioxidant, antiozonant, and anti-flex cracking
agent for many natural and synthetic elastomer compounds. Its capacity
to resist groove cracking and flex cracking is similar to antioxidant
4010 NA or 4020, superior to antioxidant A and antioxidant D.
Additional benefits of PA100 are low volatility, low reactivity, resistance
to water extraction, and a low migration rate. These characteristics
allow PA100 antidegradants to provide long-term protection in tires
and other rubber goods.
In addition to compounded products, PA100 can be used for polymer
stabilization and will provide excellent protection during drying,
storage and processing of many types of polymers.
PA100 has no fluence on vulcanization and scorch to its little basicity.
PA100 is suitable for truck tire, cross-country tire, diagonal tire
and radial tire, which are used in severe conditions.
PA100 can also make up the default that tire become red by using antioxidant
4010NA or 4020.
1. CAS No.: 68953-84-4
2. Appearance: blue-brown grain
3. Initial melting Point(°C): 90-100
4. Heating Loss(%,65°C):0.5
5. Ash(%,800°C): 0.3
Tire Durability Application
Tire durability is affected by many factors including the ingredients
and methods used in manufacture as well as the type and conditions
of use by the consumer. Tire components are exposed to heat from constant
flexing and appropriate antioxidants must be used to protect most
commonly used rubbers from thermal degradation over the lifetime of
the tire. Ozone in the air can also degrade rubber, and antiozonants
are employed to minimize this effect. Antiozonants are defined, as
compounds, which react with ozone before it reacts with the polymer
and usually, consist of para-phenylene diamines such as PA100.
Flex Cracking Application
Tires in service are subject to continuous bending and flexing, which
gradually weaken the rubber compounds and may lead to failure by crack
formation. The term "flex cracking" is generally used to
describe the spontaneous formation and growth of cracks caused by
periodic mechanical stressing of vulcanizates and accelerated when
exposed to oxygen. This oxidative mechanism differs from ozone cracking.
Obviously, good flex cracking resistance will be needed, especially
for tire sidewall applications. However, most tire components will
also require good fatigue resistance, especially the apex, the base,
the belt skim coat and inner liner. Flex cracking resistance of the
vulcanizates is strongly dependent on the type of polymer used and
can be improved by addition of antioxidants. Antioxidants offering
the best protection against flex cracking are amine-based, with p-phenylene
diamines being extremely effective. Antioxidants are defined as compounds,
which react with oxygen radicals before they have a chance to react
with the polymer and consist of aminic and phenolic types of stabilizers.
Groove Cracking Application
Groove cracking describes splits or tears, which form at the base
of the grooves of a tire tread pattern, due either to growth of cuts
made mechanically or to spontaneous formation and growth of cracks.
Tears during molding, poor tread pattern design, flexing fatigue of
the rubber due to poor flex properties, flexing fatigue due to overload
or under inflation of the tire, can contribute to groove cracking
and cut growth. The groove cracking resistance of the tread is dependent
on the polymer composition; the type of crosslinking agent and compounding
ingredients employed (especially the Antidegradants). The classes
of Para-phenylene diamine Antidegradants have demonstrated good protection
against groove cracking, especially the diaryl-para-phenylene types
such as PA100.
PA100 particularly mixed with
same amount 4020 or 4010 NA is the most antiozonant style to extend
the useful life of tire. The reason is that the two kinds antioxidants
have synergism. Antioxidant 4020 and 4010 NA provides the short-time
protection at the beginning, while PA100 provides long-term ozone,
oxygen and heat protection making it an excellent choice to minimize
environment deterioration. Because PA100 inhibits flex cracking, it
provides excellent long-term protection to dynamic products such as
tires, belts, and other industrial goods.
Because of one or two solubilizing groups on the benzene rings in
PA100, the solubility in rubber is enhanced highly and the bloom is
reduced, so that large quantity of PA100 can be used in rubber.
Packing, carrying and
PA100 is packaged in composite paper sack lined with film Net weight
is 25KG per sack Anti-fire and waterproofing should be done during
the carrying. PA100 should be stored in drying place.
Antioxidant 4010NA (IPPD)
Chemical name: N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine
Antioxidant 4020 (6PPD)
Chemical name: N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine